It’s best to plant fruit trees in autumn or spring while they are still dormant, as they won’t start to grow leaves until the weather starts getting warmer.
The method for planting is the same for each type of fruit tree, and the same as planting ornamental trees. However, pruning will vary by the variety of fruit such as kiwis (climbing shrub / tree) peach, figs, apricots mulberries and medlars which we’ll cover below. But the methods of planting, watering and feeding are the same.
What to do when you receive your fruit tree:
When they arrive, they will have exposed roots, a long stem and bare branches. Prior to dispatch, trees will have been lightly pruned as necessary and any damaged or awkwardly growing shoots and roots removed so that they are ready for immediate planting.
Remove from packaging and position in a sheltered spot. Before planting, soak the tree’s roots for an hour or so in a bucket of water.
Plant as soon as possible when they arrive. If for any reason you must wait, the trees will keep in good condition in their packaging for a week or so in a cool place such as a shed or garage.
If the planting conditions are not yet right and you must hold them any longer the tree should be ‘heeled in’. This is a technique used protect the roots of fruit trees that cannot be planted immediately and store them until they can be planted. To ‘heel in’ your fruit tree, follow these instructions:
- Dig a shallow hole in a suitable location
- Lay the tree on it’s side by the hole, with the roots in the hole
- Cover the roots with soil ensure the soil remains firm to keep the roots moist
Fruit trees can be left in this location for up to a month, however aim to have them planted before spring approaches and they come out of their dormancy.
How to plant fruit trees:
Fruit trees are normally available as bare rooted or containerised plants that are young (up to five years old) and trained by the growers to grow well and develop maximum harvests. Depending on how you receive your plant will determine in which season to plant it.
Where to plant fruit trees:
Choose a site which is well-drained and in a position which benefits from good sunlight. Avoid planting in a part of the garden that is a frost pocket - opened flowers and fruitlets are susceptible to frost damage.
Also, avoid planting in an exposed or windy position as this will both discourage pollinating insects and cause crop damage.
Avoid planting near larger or overhanging trees. To reduce the possibility of carrying over any dormant disease, do not plant where an old fruit tree has recently been removed. If your garden or allotment is visited by rabbits, then adequate protection must be given to the tree trunks using wire netting or plastic tree guards.
- Apples & Medlar - 8ft apart and 6ft from fence or building.
- Cherries - 15ft apart and 8ft from fence or building.
- Pears - 12ft apart and 6ft from fence or building.
- Plums, Gages, Mulberry & Cobnut - 12ft apart and 6ft from fence or building.
- Nectarine, Peach & Apricot - 8ft apart and 6ft from fence or building.
- Figs & Quince - 10ft apart, trained to strong fence or building.
- Kiwis - 6ft apart, trained to strong fence or building.
- Walnut & Chestnut - 30ft apart and 20ft from fence or building.
- Grapes - 6ft apart, trained to strong fence, Pergola or building.
Planting Bare-rooted Trees
November to March
Preparing the soil:
Make sure any deep rooted perennial weeds are removed with a fork, or shallow-rooted weeds which you can remove with a hoe. Most fruit varieties will tolerate a wide range of soil types, especially when you incorporate manure into the soil to increase its fertility and improve its texture.
- Dig a planting hole 15cm (6in) wider than the root system once it has been spread out, and to a depth whereby the soil mark from the nursery on the stem of the young tree will be just covered
- The graft union (the knobbly part at the base of the stem) should be about is 12-15cm (5-6in) above soil level when you have finished planting
- Fork into the sides of the hole which will encourage the roots to penetrate the surrounding soil and establish well
- Add a tree-stake for stabilising the tree in a windy site. Bang it into the hole before the tree is planted, so you don’t damage roots by tapping in the stake after the young tree has been planted
- After placing the tree in the hole, spread out the roots and add layers of soil, firming down with your foot. Repeat until you’ve filled the hole with soil
- The tree should be firm enough in the soil that it does not up-root when you pull the main stem and it shows resistance
- Water the area generously after planting and add a layer of warming and moisture-locking mulch around the tree, making sure that the mulch does not come into direct contact with the main stem.
- If you have added a stake, tie to the tree by means of a tree tie ensuring that it’s firmly attached but allows a small degree of movement.
Planting Containerised Trees
The same planting instructions as bare-rooted trees can be followed for containerised trees. However, it is important to note the following:
- Planting time: All year round (though avoid high-summer and deep winter)
- Planting method: Remove any weeds that may be growing on top of the container, and tease out some of the roots that are circling around the root ball. This will encourage the roots to penetrate the surrounding soil and establish well.
Planting younger fruit trees:
Younger trees typically establish quicker than older trees. A 1-year fruit tree will have a 3-year old root-system underneath it, which is more than mature enough.
The young trees rely upon the wispy (fibrous) roots to re-establish into its new home. The strong rigid heavy roots are best pruned back before re-planting.
The fibrous roots should not be left too long, they’re best shortened to about 3in. If the roots are left too long at planting time it is very difficult to ensure the roots are spread out radially when refilling the hole.
If the roots end up scrunched up, or worse, still wrapped round the stem below the ground, the tree develops with the trunk connected to the earth via a giant spring, which 10 or 20 years later makes the tree likely to fall over in a gale.
Planting pot grown fruit trees:
If a pot-grown tree spends too long in the pot it can become pot-bound, so it is important to ensure a newly planted tree is stabilised with a stake and tie for the first year or two after planting. The new roots initially are very brittle and will snap off if the main stem just above the ground is allowed to move around in the wind.
Feeding Fruit Trees
Fruit trees will produce flowers and fruit any time up to five years, to ensure healthy production of fruit follow these feeding instructions:
- Incorporate bulky compost and/ or manure into the soil before planting to increase nutrient levels in the soil and give the young tree a good start
- Until the tree starts to flower, feed with a general-purpose fertiliser that you can add to water.
- Once the tree starts to flower, change this to a feed high in potash, like tomato food, which encourages good flowering and fruiting
Watering Fruit Trees
- In the first year of planting, water generously to the point of creating a small pool around the stem
- Let the water absorb into the ground and repeat
- Water morning and evening in times of drought, and one or the other during wet periods.
- Add mulch after planting to conserve the water in the soil
Training Fruit Trees
How you train your fruit tree to get the best crop and make an attractive garden feature will depend on what you are planting:
- Just cut out the dead, diseased and damaged branches and one or two branches that spoil the overall shape
- You want to prune as little as often on this tree as it tends to exude a lot of tree sap when pruned
- On established trees prune the side branches in spring so there’s three shoots per branch
- In May, cut each of the three shoots to six leaves
- After harvest, cut out the side branches that fruited down to a leafy shoot that will replace the side branch the following spring
- For young trees, prune main stems by half in early February, and repeat the following year to get a good strong framework
- On established trees prune like mulberries, only ridding the dead, damaged or diseased plants
- Just prune this variety lightly and harvest when the fruits are very soft in autumn (when they are ‘bletted’)
- This is more a climber, but grows on woody stems that gives it tree ‘status’
- Prune as you would outdoor grapes
- In spring during the first and second year after planting, train the main stem to grow vertically, and the side branches to creep along wires
- Cut back these side branches to five leaves and remove the flowers
- In November shorten the growth of the vertical stem by about 10-15cm (4-6in) and cut back side branches to 2.5cm (1 in) of the main stem
- In the third year and after in spring cut the side branches to two leaves past the first set of flowers. You want one set of flowers per side-branch, to get nice-sized fruits
- With 2-3 year old trees, in winter prune strong branches to half their length and weak branches by a third
- With older plants harvest the larger fruits at the end of the year that are still green
- The pea-sized ones will overwinter fine for growing and ripening in the following summer
- For successful fruiting, figs really require lots of sun, which in the UK they get all too sporadically
Thinning fruit trees
Most fruit trees, except for cherry, medlar, mulberry, crab apple and walnut, will benefit greatly from fruit thinning. Not only will the quality of the fruit be superior, but the overall weight of fruit will also be greater.
Thinning should be carried out in early July after the natural 'June drop' has finished, how and by how much you think tour fruit tree will vary depending on the tree.
Apples and pears:
A reduction down to two fruits per cluster is desired. The earliest varieties should be thinned down to single fruits. Always aim to leave only the larger fruits on the tree.
Thinning is most important as in some years the weight of fruit is so heavy that branches are broken down. The aftermath of plum thinning can be quite frightening, as about 75% of the fruitlets should be removed! However the fruit retained then grows on to reach superb size and quantity.
Peach, nectarine and apricot:
Thinning is confined to spacing the fruits at about 6in apart along the branches. The fruits then mature into glorious size and eating quality.
Pruning fruit trees
When pruning, you should try to develop a tree with equal branches on all sides and which are evenly spaced.
Light and air are the best friends of a fruit tree, so don't be frightened to remove large branches. If you think that the tree looks a bit bare after pruning, then you have probably done a good job!
Remember that, although the fruit trees which we supply are growing on dwarf or semi-dwarfing rootstocks, under ideal conditions and left unchecked, even these can grow quite tall. pruning a little each year is the best approach.
How to prune grape vines:
Pruning grape vines varies to pruning fruit trees, if pruning grape vines follow these instructions:
- Vines are best planted with some form of support. Use a wall frame or post and wire construction to train the laterals along
- A single or double stem is most desirable with laterals running from these main stems at 9in spacings. It is on these laterals that the fruit will form
- Each year in the winter cut back each lateral to within 2 buds of the main stem.
- The length of the main stem should be allowed to increase by about 12in each year.
- Allow only two bunches of grapes to develop on each lateral otherwise the grapes will be numerous but small
- After the fruit has set, stop the growth of each lateral 2 buds past the second bunch
Pollination of fruit trees
Whilst many of the varieties we supply will pollinate themselves satisfactorily, the best fruit set can be guaranteed by choosing at least 2 varieties from a species.
However, it is also worth remembering that if you live in a town or village with fruit trees nearby, visiting bees may be generous by bringing in pollen from the neighbours!
Pests and Diseases:
Apples - Greenfly, caterpillar, sawfly, brown rot
Pears - Bullfinches, caterpillar, brown rot
Plums - Greenflies, wasps, silverleaf, brown rot
Cherries - Birds, silverleaf, bacterial canker
Mulberries - Leaf spot
Peaches - Greenfly, peach leaf curl, bacterial canker
Apricots - Greenfly, red spider mite, bacterial canker
Medlars - Winter moth caterpillars
Kiwis - Root rot, bleeding canker
Figs - Canker, grey mould, coral spot